Legal Equality versus Factual Inequality
Today we received a lecture from professor Patrick Heller about civil society participation. From his lecture it is possible to conclude that the democracy’s written rules many times differ from the reality. In this post we show the concrete example of Brazil and compare what the constitution says vs. the real facts and statistics.
Brazilian constitution previews some fundamental rights that all the citzens must have, provided by the State. Here are some off then and how different they are from the facts:
"Artigo 5º - I - homens e mulheres são iguais em direitos e obrigações, nos termos desta Constituição;"
(Men and women have equal rights and obligations under this Constitution)
The female Brazilian workers are suffering from higher wage gap compared to men worldwide, with 34% variation between the earnings of both genders, according to a study published by the International Confederation of Trade Unions (ICFTU).
After Brazil, the largest differences occur in South Africa (33%), Mexico (29.8%) and Argentina (26.1%). In the United States, the difference is 20.8%.
The smallest differences in pay are recorded in Sweden (11%), Denmark (10.1%), United Kingdom (9%) and India (6.3%).
Besides the wage gap, women suffer other types of discrimination such as lower promotion of career and the lack of policies to reconcile work and family life.
"III - ninguém será submetido a tortura nem a tratamento desumano ou degradante;"
(No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment)
Slavery work in charcoal 6 in northern Brazil: workers received no salary and remained up to 35 days without a break. Bosses are worth the debt bondage, but avoided annotate books to deceive review.
Caught in the six farms, the situation was similar: workers subjected to inhumane conditions, deprived of personal protective equipment (PPE), unpaid and unregistered work.
"XXX - proibição de diferença de salários, de exercício de funções e de critério de admissão por motivo de sexo, idade, cor ou estado civil;"
(Prohibition of wage differences in performance of duties and in hiring criteria by reason of sex, age, color or marital status).
In Brazil, the african american graduated in university recieves 29% less than earns a non-black employee with the same schooling in the labor market. Among workers with incomplete primary education this difference is 16%.
In trade, it is observed that blacks receive 64.9% of the income of non-blacks. In other sectors like services, industry and construction, blacks receive on average just over half of non-blacks.
In occupational groups with higher yield (management, leadership and planning), blacks get 57.3% of the remuneration of non-blacks in the same group
"Art. 6º São direitos sociais a educação, a saúde, a alimentação, o trabalho, a moradia, o lazer, a segurança, a previdência social, a proteção à maternidade e à infância, a assistência aos desamparados, na forma desta Constituição".
(Education, health, food, work, housing, leisure, safety, welfare, protection of motherhood and childhood, and assistance to the destitute, are social rights to this Constitution).
Education - In Brazil there are 16.295 million people unable to read and write at least a simple note.
Health - In 2000, 60% of brazilian population had no access to sewerage system and only 20% of the sewage generated in the country received some type of treatment. That same year, nearly a quarter of the population had no access to water supply network.
Food - In Brazil there are still people who have no access to food in sufficient quantity and quality for health maintenance.
In Rio de Janeiro, Cidade de Deus, a 2008 survey showed that 22% of the children surveyed were malnourished. In Alagoas, 9.5% of children under 5 years have chronic malnutrition (low height for age).
Safety - Brazil is currently the sixth place in the homicide rate per 100 000 inhabitants, in a ranking of 91 countries. The average is 25 murders per 100 000 inhabitants. We have been surpassed in violence in recent years, El Salvador, Colombia, Guatemala, U.S. Virgin Islands and Venezuela.
Fuente de la foto: http://www.google.com.pe/imgres?imgurl=http://nuviderm.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/fact-or-fiction.jpg&imgrefurl=http://nuviderm.wordpress.com/2009/12/26/home-tattoo-removal-fact-vs-fiction/&usg=__nN5mxKyObPDd86ZrjII2Xb-CUK8=&h=300&w=400&sz=148&hl=es&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=GHmZSQdONgyxcM:&tbnh=155&tbnw=207&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dreality%2Bvs%2Bfiction%26um%3D1%26hl%3Des%26rlz%3D1C1SNNT_enPE365PE365%26biw%3D1366%26bih%3D634%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=334&ei=P4yuTITkFYS8lQexwLjlDw&oei=P4yuTITkFYS8lQexwLjlDw&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0&tx=178&ty=151